No one has ever duplicated Vander Meer's achievement -- and it is probably the major league record least likely ever to be broken -- Ewell Blackwell came very close in 1947. On June 18, Blackwell no-hit the Boston Braves and on June 22, he pitched 8.1 no-hit innings against Brooklyn before allowing two hits.
Vander Meer, with his starts before and after the no-nos, pitched a record 21.2 no-hit innings.
Baseball Reference noted that there have been six other pitchers who have had back-to-back starts of at least nine innings and allowed one or no hits in each game (so Blackwell does not qualify):
Howard Ehmke, Red Sox, September 7 (no-hitter) and 11, 1923Stieb was one out away from a no-hitter in both of his games. Julio Franco singled on September 24 and pinch-hitter Jim Traber got the hit on September 30. Stieb did pitch a no-hitter two years later. ... Ford had a relief appearance between his two starts: 1.1 innings on September 4, 1955.
Dazzy Vance, Dodgers, September 8 and 13 (no-hitter), 1925
Lon Warneke, Cubs, April 27 and 22, 1934
Whitey Ford, Yankees, September 2 and 7, 1955
Sam McDowell, Cleveland, April 25 and May 1, 1966
Dave Stieb, Blue Jays, September 24 and 30, 1988
One of the most amazing games in baseball history happened on May 2, 1917. Both starters -- Fred Toney of the Reds and Jim Vaughn of the Cubs -- threw nine no-hit innings. The Reds got two hits and a run off Vaughn in the 10th and won the game. Toney got his no-no.
This past Sunday, Gavin Floyd of the White Sox did not allow a hit until there were two outs in the seventh and Ted Lilly of the Cubs took a no-hit bid into the ninth. The game went 41 outs before a hit was made, tying it for the second longest double no-hit bid in history:
55 outs Toney-Vaughn, May 2, 1917(Other info and fun stuff here).
41 outs Koufax-Hendley, July 9, 1965
41 outs Floyd-Lilly, June 13, 2010
40 outs Trout-May, July 13, 1980
37 outs Brown-Van Landingham, June 10, 1997